1-Growth model

Although some debate still exists as to the exact details of the company founding, there is no debating that the Burger King brand has grown from its South Florida roots into a global presence.

As of December 31, 2013, Burger King was ranked as the second largest global fast food hamburger restaurant (FFHR) chain, with over 13,500 restaurants in over 95 countries and U.S. territories (source: bk.com).

DSC07939 - BK - Burger King Weston Road and Rowntree Dairy Road Vaughan ON

Burger King (custom design), front 3/4 view, Weston Road and Rowntree Dairy Road, Vaughan, Ontario

Ultimately, the company can trace its early days to the Jacksonville, Florida-based Insta-Burger King restaurant chain that began in 1953. When financial difficulties struck the Insta-Burger King chain, its two Miami-based franchisees purchased the company, tweaked components of the concept, focused on the flame-broiling process, and renamed the company to the shorter Burger King moniker (source: wikipedia.org, bk.com).

In those early days as today, Burger King has grown principally through the franchise model.

DSC10936 - BK - Burger King Rue Jean Talon Ouest and Boulevard Décarie Montreal QC

Burger King (custom design), side 3/4 view, Rue Jean Talon Ouest and Boulevard Décarie, Montréal, Québec

However, unlike other restaurant competitors, Burger King maintains a small and decreasing number of corporate-owned stores, having accelerated the shedding and re-franchising of stores in recent years.

2-Designed for suburbia

Massive growth of the fast-food burger restaurants in the United States followed in lockstep with the growth of the automobile and suburbia.

DSC06184 - BK - Burger King - 104 Elwood Davis Road  North Syracuse NY

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 104 Elwood Davis Road, North Syracuse, New York

As such, Burger King locations consist in large measure of suburban-set freestanding single-storey full service restaurant with seating, drive-thru window and adjacent parking area. Alternatively, the restaurant might be sited within a field of parking, surrounded on all sides by vehicle drive lanes, parking stalls, or queuing space.

DSC03930 - BK - Burger King Ogilvie Road and Blair Road Gloucester ON

Burger King (now closed), side 3/4 view, Ogilvie Road and Blair Road, Gloucester, Ontario

Adopting a basic rectilinear (square or rectangle) shape, visual interest and attention is focused on the ingress point, with the entry component generally projecting from the building plane, as a singular mass or bulge in the overall footprint.

DSC05915 - BK - Burger King Boulevard St-Joseph Gatineau QC

Burger King (now closed), front 3/4 view, Boulevard St-Joseph, Gatineau, Québec

The building is commonly flat, squat, and short. Additionally, the simple mansard roof capping off the building only accentuates the diminutive height. Generous roof overhangs extend on multiple sides, serving to conceal rooftop equipment from view and adding a traditional touch to the elevations.

DSC07600 - BK - Burger King 293 Britain Street Santee SC

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 293 Britain Street, Santee, South Carolina

Quite commonly, the entry component projects both in footprint and elevation, thus breaking the roof trend line by rising above the principal roof, and proposing a change in the general roof geometry. The double-height entry appendage, often finished off with a scalloped roof, adds some visual interest to uniformity of the main roof.

DSC06071 - BK - Burger King 314 Main Street East Hawkesbury ON

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 314 Main Street East, Hawkesbury, Ontario

DSC06073 - BK - Burger King 314 Main Street East Hawkesbury ON

Burger King, rear 3/4 view, 314 Main Street East, Hawkesbury, Ontario

Although the prototypical freestanding Burger King restaurant format is of the suburban variety, multiple urban and non-traditional locations examples can be found within the chain.

DSC05603 - BK - Burger King Rue Ste Catherine and Phillips Square Montreal QC

Burger King, front 3/4 view, Rue Ste Catherine and Phillips Square, Montréal, Québec

DSC10289 - BK - Burger King Rue Cremazie Est and Boulevard St-Laurent Montreal QC

Burger King, front 3/4 view, Rue Crémazie Est and Boulevard St-Laurent, Montréal, Québec

Nonetheless, the pervasive traditionally suburban freestanding restaurant had come to predominantly epitomize the Burger King brand in the twilight of the last millennium.

3-Green initiatives

After the “Burger Wars” of the early to mid-1980s, a near 20-year period of continued under-investment in the brand followed throughout the ownership by Pillsbury, Grand Metropolitan plc and Diageo plc (source: wikipedia.org, bk.com). As such, many of the restaurants had grown tired and stale.

DSC09566 - BK - FORMER - Oswego Road near Vine Liverpool NY

Burger King (now closed), front 3/4 view, Oswego Road near Vine, Liverpool, New York

In 2002, a group of investment firms led by TPG Capital purchased the Burger King brand from Diageo plc, and quickly moved to revitalize and reorganize the company (source: wikipedia.org, bk.com).

New, smaller restaurant designs that sought to reduce average building costs were introduced in April 2005 (source: morganstanley.com). As a follow-up, around fiscal 2008, Burger King launched the “ROC” (Return On Capital) prototype, which was then hailed as both energy efficient and a lower cost remodel effort (source: online.barrons.com). The “ROC” prototype proposed a smaller footprint, reduced material and utility costs, increased labour efficiencies, along with a more efficient flexible batch broiler (FBB) and new refrigeration equipment (source: qsrweb.com, Burger King CR Report).

Over the years, many franchisees had put off remodels to existing stores due to their expense and perceived marginal increase in store profitability. Not surprisingly, more than 15% of franchise stores were over 20 years old when the “ROC” initiative launched in 2008 (source: online.barrons.com). As such, Burger King had hoped that the “ROC” design would encourage franchisees to take the leap and remodel their restaurants.

BK - Burger King 762 West Coshocton Street Johnston OH 1 https___maps.google

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 762 West Coshocton Street, Johnston, Ohio (source: maps.google.com)

The ROC design added height and grandeur to previously short and stout buildings with tower elements at doors and drive-thru windows.

BK - Burger King State Route 161 and Karl Road Columbus OH 5 https___maps.google

Burger King, side 3/4 view, State Route 161 and Karl Road, Columbus, Ohio (source: maps.google.com)

The exterior cladding consisted of a combination of brick, two-tone/multi-coloured brick, stone veneers, along with stucco, EIFS, red tile and pre-finished metal elements.

BK - Burger King 840 West Army Trail Carol Stream IL 4 https___maps.google

Burger King, side 3/4 view, 840 West Army Trail, Carol Stream, Illinois (source: maps.google.com)

Parapet towers, punched window openings with individualized metal awnings, interrupted/segmented canopy overhangs, metal coping, and red-coloured LED illuminated parapet bands increased visual interest by adding rhythm and articulation to the elevations and facade.

The “ROC” prototype spawned multiple variations, which themselves were further refined, modified and augmented. As individual franchisees selected in an à-la-carte fashion which “ROC” elements to integrate into their particular re-image project, the Burger King restaurants progressively began to shed their traditional look for a modern interpretation.

4-Upscale intentions

On the heels of the “ROC” reception, Burger King would go one step further and attempt to build upon the improvements that the “ROC” concepts brought forward.

DSC07350 - BK - Burger King 5556 North Federal Highway Fort Lauderdale FL

Burger King, side 3/4 view, 5556 North Federal Highway, Fort Lauderdale, Florida

In October 2009, then Burger King CEO John Chidsey, unveiled a massive global plan to remodel all Burger King restaurants to the “20/20” design (source: burgerbusiness.com, qsrweb.com, boston.com, huffingtonpost.com, can-restaurantnews.com). In development since October 2007, and tested in Europe, Latin America, Canada and in some U.S. locations, the contemporary and edgy “20/20” concept was the vision of the restaurant of the future (source: qsrweb.com, burgerbusiness.com, interbranddesignforum.com ). Scalable and adaptable to any type of building footprint, “20/20” was going to lead the way forward.

BK - Burger King 8523 Spring Cypress Road Spring TX 2 https___maps.google

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 8523 Spring Cypress Road, Spring, Texas (source: maps.google.com)

Utilizing warm and welcoming elements, the “grill-centric” design draws inspiration from Burger King’s signature flame-broiling, cooking process and brings it “to life through bold colors, textures, imagery and text.” (source: qsrweb.com).

Interior materials, such as corrugated metal finishes, exposed brick walls, black accents, ceramic tile, hardwood-like floors, exposed concrete, results in a modern industrial-inspired aesthetic (source: qsrweb.com, can-restaurantnews.com). Fixtures and equipment include modern hanging lamps, rotating red flame chandeliers, a large flat-screen television, table-side touchscreen ordering menus, saucer shaped ceiling element, and new liquid crystal display (LCD) menu boards (source: qsrweb.com, gizmodo.com, abcnews.com). Refreshed seating options now include bar-seating, booths and chairs. Furthermore, the interior décor leans towards earthy colours, such as deep red and beige.

The contemporary, industrial-inspired, theme carries through from the interior to the exterior. However, a black, red and tan colour scheme punctuates the exterior.

DSC09528 - BK - Burger King 4035 Route 31 Clay NY

Burger King, front 3/4 view, 4035 Route 31, Clay, New York

DSC09530 - BK - Burger King 4035 Route 31 Clay NY

Burger King, partial side 3/4 view, 4035 Route 31, Clay, New York

Revised exterior design includes brick cladding, bold black towers, “window” eyebrow elements and pre-finished metal awnings with sloped roofs or cable tie-backs.

DSC11261 - BK - Burger King 290 Main Street Binghamton NY

Burger King, front entrance view, 290 Main Street, Binghamton, New York

The drive-thru component is accentuated by surround bump and “archons” to add articulation to the building footprint and extend the new branded experience to drive-thru customers.

DSC11270 - BK - Burger King 290 Main Street Binghamton NY

Burger King, drive-thru 3/4 view, 290 Main Street, Binghamton, New York

The design favours a flat roof with high parapet configuration with metal copings clad with a lighted red LED parapet edge trim. Conceptually mimicking grill flames, the illuminated parapets are meant to allude to the flame broiled process (source: qsrweb.com, justiceholdingsltd.com).

Striving to make Burger King a more inviting place to sit down, rather than just a drive-thru or quick meal option, the “20/20” design attempts to merge an upscale casual dining experience with the speed and convenience of a fast-food hamburger restaurant (FFHR).

5-“20/20″ vision blurred

Anticipating strong adopting and implementation of the “20/20” design worldwide, Burger King had forecasted more than 200 re-imaged restaurants by the end of June 2010 (source: qsrweb.com). However, at a cost of $500,000 for “20/20” remodels, many franchisees hesitated.

Lack of uptake by franchisees for the expensive remodel has led Burger King to scale back its rollout plan. In fact, with only 52 corporate-owned stores, Burger King is effectively 100% franchise owned, and dependent on selling franchisees on the merits of the design concept (source: bk.com, morganstanley.com). A stated goal of 40% re-imaged restaurants by 2015, North American adoption of the “20/20” design stood at roughly 30% as of December 31, 2013 (source: bk.com). Even though the rollout has been slow, corporate commitment to the “20/20” image remains.

In fact, patchwork designs that bring in some of the key elements of the “20/20” design into the existing building vocabulary can be observed. Changes such as mansard roofs interrupted by high parapets, grey coloured standing seam metal roofing, drive-thru headwall bump outs, new black and tan colour scheme, new signage, and the illuminated light bar denote attempts to integrate the primary components of the “20/20” design into existing locations at a lower cost.

DSC09574 - BK- Burger King - 732 Canton Street Ogdensburg NY

Burger King, drive-thru 3/4 view, 732 Canton Street, Ogdensburg, New York

DSC09575 - BK- Burger King - 732 Canton Street Ogdensburg NY

Burger King, entrance side view, 732 Canton Street, Ogdensburg, New York

However, ad hoc, uneven application, in a bid to save face and salvage the “20/20” design, will potentially serve to further dilute the potential value and benefits that might result from a consistent, cohesive design execution.

Already, the retail landscape is littered with numerous buildings whose form factors make them instantly recognizable as former Burger King locations.

DSC09251 - BK - FORMER - Snap Fitness 2901 Rue Laurier Rockland ON

Snap Fitness, front 3/4 view, 2901 Rue Laurier, Rockland, Ontario

DSC07153 - BK - FORMER - Bartel Road and Route 11 Brewerton NY

Burger King (now closed), side 3/4 view, Bartel Road and Route 11, Brewerton, New York

DSC07515 - BK - FORMER - Burger Fi 4343 North Ocean Drive Lauderdale-by-the-Sea FL

BurgerFi, side 3/4 view, 4343 North Ocean Drive, Lauderdale-by-the-Sea, Florida

DSC08461 - BK - FORMER - Malibu Restaurant West 662 Wonderland Road London ON

Malibu Restaurant, side 3/4 view, West 662 Wonderland Road, London, Ontario

Notwithstanding, Burger King needs a momentous jolt to revive sagging sales, and regain its number two position in the U.S. market. After numerous years of top-down neglect as the competition actively updated their brands, the perennial second place to category leader McDonald’s, Burger King now trails behind Wendy’s in terms of same store sales (source: wikipedia.org). Ironically, as it attempts to re-launch its image and store design, Burger King must contend with its self-inflicted wounds that have caused significant reticence and apprehension from its most ardent fans, its own franchisees.



All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-Organizing system needed

One of the axioms of vehicle ownership is that, no matter the model, make or vintage, servicing, maintenance work and component replacement will eventually be required to keep it performing optimally. For many retail consumers, such servicing work is the extent of their relationship and exposure to NAPA brand.

DSC12436 NAPA NAPA AutoPro 103 Rue St-Jean Baptiste Est Rigaud QC CA

NAPA AutoPro service center, right 3/4 view, Rue St-Jean Baptiste Est, Rigaud, Québec, Canada

Unlike more consumer-oriented automotive aftermarket supply brands such as AutoZone or Advance Auto Parts that focus mainly on the Do-It-Yourself market, NAPA Auto Parts focuses on both retail and commercial markets, having built a premier supplier status with professional repair shops across the United States and abroad.

DSC07124 NAPA Autozone West Taft Road Syracuse NY

AutoZone, front 3/4 view,  West Taft Road, Syracuse, New York

DSC09394 NAPA Advance Auto Parts Route 11 Mattydale NY

Advance Auto Parts, right 3/4 view, Route 11, Mattydale, New York

The automotive aftermarket parts space is a wide field of various large and small, simple and complex products, with inventories that consist of everything from tail lights to transmissions.

Seeking to address the growing need for an automotive parts distribution system in the United Stated, NAPA (National Automotive Parts Association), a voluntary trade association, was founded in 1925 (source: NAPA Annual Report 2013). In order to continue to respond to this ever-growing demand, NAPA Auto Parts keeps tabs on over 400,000 parts, supplied through approximately 6000 stores across 46 States, of which approximately 1100 are corporate controlled, and 64 distribution centers in the United States (source: mynapa.com/NAPA Annual Report 2013). As SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) turn over at varying rates, and new vehicles and parts become available, having the right parts in stock and getting them to professional customers quickly is becoming an infinitely more difficult and demanding task.

2-Organic growth

Nearing the century mark is a testament to the NAPA brand and the marketplace reputation that it has secured. The marketplace for auto parts has grown dramatically with the widespread adoption of the personal automobile as the primary means of mobility for the masses. As automobile sales proliferated, so did the need for replacement parts.

NAPA NAPA 12 West Howard Street Colfax IA 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, West Howard Street, Colfax, Iowa (source: maps.google.com)

The brand grew organically with the burgeoning auto industry, habitually adding partner retailers to the NAPA system. A consequence of this uneven growth resulted in a patchwork of stores that bore little resemblance to one another, and more to their surroundings.

NAPA NAPA 108 Bennett Avenue Webster Springs WV 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, rear 3/4 view, Bennett Avenue, Webster Springs, West Virginia (source: maps.google.com)

The architecture was more vernacular/local than national/global. The stores served their local community and integrated into their neighbourhoods.

However, some initial retail outposts show signs of age. Small, rustic, homely, and inefficient (space and energy), some of these smaller “local” stores adopted an aesthetic similar to the traditional neighbourhood main street country/general stores.

NAPA NAPA 51 South Main Street Nephi UT 3 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front view, South Main Street, Nephi, Utah (source: maps.google.com)

Stores located in the densely populated areas of cities and towns meant a more convenient location, expedient response time for parts deliveries, better and more frequent exposure to the brand and top-of-mind recognition.

NAPA NAPA 7025 Webster Road Cowen WV 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, left 3/4 view, Webster Road, Cowen, West Virginia (source: maps.google.com)

As the nation, counties and cities expanded over time, the population poles, those with higher densities ebbed, and relocated further away from traditional town centers into more urban, suburban, and exurban areas.

NAPA NAPA 98 West Main Street Sutton WV 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view West Main Street, Sutton, West Virginia (source: maps.google.com)

Additionally, retailing being a fickle thing, tastes can change rapidly.

Laden with stores several decades old in some cases, the NAPA brand does has a significant number of these types of legacy stores that would not, and could not, adhere to modern-day NAPA standards.

3-Sporting the team colours

The motley collection of NAPA Auto Parts stores of disparate shapes and configurations share one thing in common, they all root for the same team.

DSC12454 2885 Chamberland Street Rockland ON CA

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Chamberland Street, Rockland, Ontario, Canada

Exterior and interior signage promotes the NAPA brand. Many stores are awash in the core NAPA brand colors, PANTONE Reflex Blue, 123 Yellow, and 186 Red (source: NAPA product sales training manual). These core colours are present in the logo and brand signage.

NAPA NAPA 10100 West 49th Avenue Wheat Ridge CO 6 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, West 49th Avenue, Wheat Ridge, Colorado (source: maps.google.com)

In many cases, the Reflex Blue is liberally applied to all exterior walls.

DSC12450 NAPA NAPA 514 Main Street Hawkesbury ON CA

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Main Street, Hawkesbury, Ontario, Canada

In other cases, it is significantly more subdued, or barely registers. Instances where integrating into the surrounding character or design fabric is perceived as desirable, brand elements are often much less ostentatious.

NAPA NAPA 6802 Post Road North Kingston RI 1 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Post Road North, Kingston, Rhode Island (source: maps.google.com)

NAPA NAPA 265 South Main Street Springville UT 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, South Main Street, Springville, Utah (source: maps.google.com)

Additionally, there exist several examples of building exteriors finished in a so-called “NAPA Grey”. Notwithstanding, only the blue, yellow and red are considered core NAPA colours.

DSC12498 NAPA NAPA 845 Industrial Road Ottawa ON CA

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Industrial Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

NAPA NAPA 5117 E Independence Avenue Kansas MO 3 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Eeat Independence Avenue, Kansas, Missouri (source: maps.google.com)

This somewhat clandestine and improvised approach to design is unique as the NAPA brand has less of a command-and-control, top-down all-encompassing uniform design directive. Unlike franchise or corporate owned stores, an overwhelming number of NAPA locations are independently-owned and operated stores, of which the proprietors participate within the NAPA system, sporting some or all of the team colours/insignia.

NAPA NAPA 303 South Main Street Coventry RI 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, South Main Street, Coventry, Rhode Island (source: maps.google.com)

NAPA NAPA 1321 Main Street West Warwick RI 4 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, left 3/4 view, Main Street West, Warwick, Rhode Island (source: maps.google.com)

Enjoying a heady 94% brand recognition, NAPA Auto Parts is one of top brands in the wholesale market (source: napaonline.com). Evidently, gaining the marketing muscle of a national brand and top of mind awareness is a boon to those participating within the NAPA system.

NAPA NAPA 29 North Locust Street Buckhannon WV 1 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, right side 3/4 view, North Locust Street, Buckhannon, West Virginia (source: maps.google.com)

Although faced with a more challenging task of regulating store design than other competitors within the industry, NAPA does strongly suggest preferred or idealized size, layout and general parameters when in comes to new from-the-ground-up stores.


In more recent years, more standardization to leverage and maximize the value of the NAPA brand has crept into the system. Consequently, the store design has veered away from inconsistent and eccentric towards slightly more rigid and repetitive.

Guidelines suggest ideal stores have a minimum of 60′ of frontage, range from 5,000 S.F. to 7,000 S.F. including sales area and stockroom, be located on the main/ground floor, and also provide on-site parking for a minimum of 25 cars (source: mynapa.com). Although these guidelines establish a working outline, they do not however dictate design in any thorough manner, as numerous items such as building shape, height, depth, width, floor count, site access, entry/egress, building orientation, to name just a few are left to the individual operator and their design team.

NAPA NAPA 15 Valley Road Middletown RI 4 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, Valley Road, Middletown, Rhode Island (source: maps.google.com)

Nonetheless, the auto parts supply business does place some constraints on certain building formats. A list of favourable criteria would certainly include items such as main floor/single floor building/retail space, access to a loading dock/receiving area, ample parking for customers, distinct/separate parking spaces for delivery vehicles, easy street access, high visibility sites and main/arterial street access to rapidly expedite parts to commercial clients.

NAPA NAPA 201 East 1st Street Ankeny IA 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, East 1st Street, Ankeny, Iowa (source: maps.google.com)

Unsurprisingly, NAPA Auto Parts stores have a predilection for small footprint, squat, low-rise, uncomplicated, unadorned, windowless buildings with simple/basic linear geometries.

NAPA NAPA 240 West Agate Avenue Granby CO 2 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, West Agate Avenue, Granby, Colorado (source: maps.google.com)

Acting as micro-warehouses, the stores benefit heavily from square or rectangular geometries that function best with linear rows of high-density racking. Divided between retail and warehousing functions, freestanding buildings tend to have a demonstrated gradient of opaqueness moving from the retail to warehouse portions.

DSC09470 NAPA NAPA Route 11 Syracuse NY

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view,  Route 11, Syracuse, New York

The front portion of the store, which serves the retail component, typically has a high incidence of glass and two-way visibility, emblematic of countless retail operations. Additionally, the vast majority of NAPA signage is located towards the front of the store.

NAPA NAPA 190 East 100 North Payson UT 3 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front view, East 100 North, Payson, Utah (source: maps.google.com)

The back of the store, which accommodates the warehouse and office/support spaces, has a tendency to be devoid of windows, surface relief, or memorable design features.

NAPA NAPA 1142 13th Street Nevada IA 4 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, left 3/4 view, 13th Street, Nevada, Iowa (source: maps.google.com)

The rudimentary approach to store aesthetic understates the complexity and planning underway inside. Excelling at operating a hub-and-spoke network, the NAPA Auto Parts stores are supported by strategically located expansive distribution centers that can supply the stores in a timely manner to respond to immediate client needs.

NAPA NAPA 411 N Midler Ave Syracuse NY 1 https___maps.google

NAPA Distribution Center, right 3/4 view, North Midler Avenue, Syracuse, New York (source: maps.google.com)

NAPA NAPA 201 Shawnee Avenue Kansas City MO 6 https___maps.google

NAPA Distribution Center, front 3/4 view, Shawnee Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri (source: maps.google.com)

Nonetheless, as the Internet has revolutionized other industries, the established NAPA distribution network will likely require continual refinement and improvements to fend off the competition from newer online retailers such as Amazon, Partsgeek and Rockauto. However, with a plethora of well-stoked micro-warehouses supported by distribution centers, the NAPA inventory and distribution system is well suited to deliver on the promise of having the right part in the right place at the right price, right now!

5-Driverless future

Much has been written in the media about the lacklustre appeal of the automobile with the younger generations. Unlike their parents and grandparents, Generation-Y and Millennials are not infatuated with cars, driving less, and many are not bothering to get a driver’s license (source: USAToday.com). Seemingly rejecting car culture en-masse for Internet connected technology; many are choosing to avoid the hassle, cost and environmental impact of car ownership, opting instead for other mobility modes such as walking, cycling, public transportation, and car-sharing programs.

DSC12509 NAPA Car2Go Service

Car2Go vehicle (Car Sharing Service), Montréal, Québec, Canada

DSC12517 NAPA Vrtucar Car Sharing Service

Vrtucar vehicle (Car Sharing Service), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Additionally, advances in self-driving autonomous cars by Google have made the prospect of a driverless future perhaps much closer than once believed (source: cnbc.com).

The changing landscape for the automobile industry, perhaps more than competitive pressures, will have huge ramifications for businesses such as NAPA, which rely heavily on automobile sales and ownership to keep their business model viable.

NAPA NAPA 2919 South Duff Avenue Ames IA 4 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts,  front 3/4 view, South Duff Avenue, Ames, Iowa (source: maps.google.com)

The widespread acceptance of the automobile and the freedom that it promised lead to the ensuing development of a “car culture” in the United States that once seemed unshakeable, surviving fuel rationing, myriad legislations, environmental demonizing and skyrocketing fuel price spikes. That unflappable resolve may not translate to future generations that have shown more interest towards information technology than the automobile.

Perhaps, the sight of groups of men, clustered together, with their heads under the hood of the newest vehicle on the block might disappear altogether from the neighbourhood visual lexicon. Likewise, the bonding experience between father and son, in garages big and small, performing basic maintenance on the family car, or working together rebuilding a long-term project car.

Then again, the twilight for these oft-repeated scenes of a romanticized past might not be so near.

NAPA NAPA 475 State Fair Blvd Syracuse NY 1 https___maps.google

NAPA Auto Parts, front 3/4 view, State Fair Blvd, Syracuse, New York (source: maps.google.com)

If such were the case, it is likely, that much like back then, NAPA Auto Parts will continue to fulfill the auto parts needs of service professionals and owners, and feeding the passion of gearheads from their diverse and divergent collective of stores.

Happy Father’s Day! I miss you Dad.



All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-Launch 2.0

A new generation of buyers have come into their own in the intervening years since Fiat last sold vehicles in the United States and Canada. Many of these buyers were yet to be born, or far too young to remember the full details as to the travails that the brand, and it’s customers, had endured in the not-so distant past.

Fiat brand vehicle build quality in the 1970s and 80s was abysmal. As Charlie Hughes, former head of marketing at Fiat during that era, stated “We sold 100,000 Fiats in the U.S. in 1975, and we got 99,000 of them back for major problems” (source: tirebusiness.com). Plagued by problems, Fiat eventually pulled up stakes and abandoned the US/Canadian market completely in the early part of the 1980s.

Fiat Group dealership Piazza Riccardo Cattaneo, 9 Turin, Italy

Fiat Group dealership, Piazza Riccardo, Turin, Italy (source: maps.google.com)

Focusing on Europe, as well as strengthening its presence in emerging markets, Fiat’s vehicle quality steadily rose, and became more on par with other full-line automobile manufacturers.

Fiat 231 Colney Hatch Ln London UK

Fiat dealership, 231 Colney Hatch Lane, London, England (United Kingdom) (source: maps.google.com)

Fiat dealership Avenida Brasil, 8685 - Olario Rio de Janeiro Brazil

Fiat dealership, Avenida Brasil, 8685, Olario, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (source: maps.google.com)

In the wake of the global economic meltdown in 2007-2009, and the Federally orchestrated bankruptcies of both General Motors and Chrysler, Fiat would be presented with an opportunity to return to the large US auto market.

DSC11468 Fiat Chrysler Building New York City NY

Chrysler Building, New York City, New York

Acquiring an interest in Chrysler in 2009, by way of the US Federal bankruptcy proceedings, afforded Fiat a broad reaching, established dealer network with which to relaunch the Fiat brand in the United States and Canada. However, rather than pushing Fiat branded vehicles amongst other Chrysler company brands, these particular vehicles would be sold in separate and distinct showrooms.

2-Separate and special

As part of the US/Canada narrative for the re-introduction of the Fiat brand, the plan was to construct unique, stand-alone showrooms (“studios”) that would showcase, sell and service the brand’s unique vehicles.

DSC09499 Fiat Fiat 500s Driver's Circle Cicero NY

Fiat 500s on dealer lot

Establishing a distinct network of single brand studios was considered the ideal approach to appeal to a new type of buyer that was not particularly swayed by the Chrysler vehicle portfolio. Presumably, Chrysler’s pseudo-luxury pretensions, Dodge’s American muscle-car/boy-racer persona, or the rough and tumble Jeep brand did not resonate with Fiat intenders.

Fiat landmark 5765 Peachtree Industrial Boulevard Atlanta GA 3

Fiat dealership, Peachtree Industrial Boulevard, Atlanta, Georgia (source: maps.google.com)

Fiat’s targeted clientele was young, hip, urban, stylish, savvy and connected. Without doubt, these buyers would gravitate to “Italian design and style, with technology at an affordable price” (source: chryslerinthenews.com). As such, creating a “gallery-like” experience, whereby industrial-age pop art, such as the iconic 500, could be admired was part of the re-introduction roadmap. Wrapping the brand in an aura of Italian fashion and flair, the studios would also feature in-store cafés, and a myriad of factory-authorized, dealer-installed customization options.

Fiat 3903 Hecktown Road Easton PA

Fiat dealership (interior views), Hecktown Road, Easton, Pennsylvania (source: fiatusaoflehighvalley.com)

However, selling a single model, in the small car segment, which is notorious for slim profit margins, without the cachet of a luxury brand to command higher transactional price points, had many dealers balking at the prospect of undertaking significant new facility investments.

3-Corporate kinship

The uptake for new from-the-ground-up unique dealer facilities not materializing as quickly as the Fiat brand operatives had hoped, the original plan vis-à-vis stand-alone “studios” would be modified to allow some level of cross-pollination between the Chrysler and Fiat brand products within the same showroom space.

Fiat Capital Ott 2500 Palladium Dr no1200 Ottawa 2 https___maps.google

Fiat-CDJR dealership, Palladium Drive, Kanata, Ontario, Canada (source: maps.google.com)

Although the showroom would house all corporate brands, the Fiat brand would maintain a dedicated, brand-specific space, that would serve to provide the unique Italian-inspired experience. Meanwhile, the other Chrysler brands would be cast aside, sharing and competing for the remaining showroom space.

In some instances, the Fiat studio is grafted onto one of the ends of the existing dealership facade as a completely new space, or existing space is annexed from other brands, and transformed into dedicated Fiat space.

Fiat 2955 Chemin Cote de Liesse Montreal QC 6 https___maps.google

Chrysler-Jeep-Dodge dealership, Chemin Cote de Liesse, Montreal, Québec, Canada (source: maps.google.com)

Fiat 2955 Chemin Cote de Liesse Montreal QC 1 https___maps.google

CJDR-Fiat dealership, Chemin Cote de Liesse, Montreal, Québec, Canada (source: maps.google.com)

And in other cases, the Fiat showroom was simply wedged into where space allowed.

DSC09497 Fiat Fiat Dealership Driver's Circle Cicero NY

Fiat dealership, Driver’s Circle, Cicero, New York

Additionally, some dealerships seized the opportunity for renewal and incorporated the addition of their Fiat studio into the overall long-term dealership facility planning, electing to construct newer state-of-the-art digs to house all their brands.

DSC06508 Fiat Chrysler-Jeep-Dodge-Fiat Dealership Boul des Sources DDO QC

Chrysler-Jeep-Dodge-Fiat dealership, Boulevard des Sources, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Québec, Canada

DSC06510 Fiat NB Chrysler-Jeep-RAM-Dodge-Fiat Dealership Boul des Sources DDO QC

Proposed CJRD-Fiat dealership, Boulevard des Sources, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Québec, Canada

In all, the “studio” plan deviated far afield from the unique stand-alone brand mantra resulting in a broad range of built-environments that interpret the brand features and elements of the Fiat brand.

4-Unique brand elements

The nature of the automotive retailing business being intimately linked to easy grade level access, which facilitates access for getting vehicles from the exterior into the showroom, Fiat studios are low in height, boxy, rectilinear, and generally simple and straightforward regarding building footprint geometry.

Fiat 3737 South Memorial Drive Tulsa OK 2

Fiat dealership, South Memorial Drive, Tulsa, Oklahoma (source: maps.google.com)

The building’s primary facade tends to be composed of aluminum and glass storefront glazing systems, dominated by expansive glazing and punctuated with entry doors. Clear anodized aluminum finish is favoured as it is a more subtle finish that is less distracting and seamlessly integrates into the overall composition. Above the glazing, the exterior treatment is achieved by way of fiber cement panels, pre-fabricated elements such as ACP (aluminum composite panels), IMP (insulated metal panels) rendered in a complementary neutral colour.

DSC07946 Fiat Fiat Dealership Auto Park Circle Vaughan ON

Fiat dealership, Auto Park Circle, Vaughan, Ontario, Canada

Of particular note, the facade glazing does not wrap around the corner. Large end columns, at one or both ends of the facade as the case may be, create a rigid vertical break line in the facade. Creating large column corners gives the building a more assertive start/stop point along the horizontal axis, essentially book-ending the glazing, reinforcing a strong edge definition.

The upper portion of the column corners step out and cantilever away from the facade, thus adding visual mass to the upper portion of the columns. The lower portion appears cinched, therefore imbuing a sense of heft and relative girth at the higher strata. Bordered on both sides with column elements, clad red in colour that reprise the Fiat logo and branding material, the facade mimics a funnel, with the view and interest turned inwards towards the body of the building.

DSC07947 Fiat Fiat Dealership Auto Park Circle Vaughan ON

Fiat dealership, Auto Park Circle, Vaughan, Ontario, Canada

In some instances, possibly due to space constraints, conflicts with neighbouring buildings, or zoning/urban design norms, the upper stepped portion is turned inward, abruptly terminating the glazed transparent portion of the elevation.

Fiat 2050 Boston Post Road Larchmont NY 2

Fiat dealership, Boston Post Road, Larchmont, New York (source: maps.google.com)

Prominent seams within the column and headwall portion carve up the elevation of what might otherwise be a slab sided expanse of wall into a patchwork of pre-fabricated metallic panels. Although they provide minimal surface relief, the seams add a rhythmic pattern, symmetry and scale into the elevation.

DSC11779 Fiat Chrysler-Jeep-Dodge-Fiat Dealership Chemin Cote de Liesse Montreal QC

CJDR-Fiat dealership, Chemin Cote de Liesse, Montreal, Québec, Canada

The side elevations typically carry through the theme developed on the facade, large glass areas capped by neutral headwall areas and strong corner definition. The rear, typically the least adorned side of the building, is likely clad in concrete, CMU (concrete masonry units), cement plaster or some other durable, low-maintenance material.

Recognizable by the prominent red corner column element, the overall design seems to lack any radical or wholesale application of unbridled Italian design and dramatic flair. As a consequence of adhering to the proven built-environment formula, the Fiat studio experience, though recognizable, falls short on revolutionizing the form-follows-function automotive retailing/dealership architectural design landscape.

5-Brand maestro

During the relaunch of the brand in the United States and Canada, accompanied by the unrelenting brand/lifestyle association with the stylish re-incarnated 500, Fiat has managed to imbue the brand with some of their iconic model’s cheap and cheerful personality to go along with its fashionable Italian flair.

Although successfully generating interest with variants and special/limited edition models, the slowing-stabilizing-falling sales figures indicate that much of the initial euphoric early adopter purchasing wave might have passed for 500 aficionados (source: goodcarbadcar.net). In fact, it remains a relative oddity to see the diminutive 500, ideally suited for city driving and urban duties, on American roads dominated by larger vehicles, SUVs and pickup trucks.

DSC06646 Fiat Fiat 500 v Ford Econoline

Ford E-Series van and Fiat 500

Separate sales channels, dedicated “studio” spaces, brand specific environments, and a unique architectural identity can help build and maintain awareness, but may only carry a brand so far. As many who follow the automotive industry would concur, getting the product mix right matters profoundly.

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles FCA brands

Various Fiat Chrysler Automobiles brands:

RAM, Dodge, Chrysler, Jeep, SRT (recently discontinued), Mopar,

Fiat, Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Maserati, Ferrari, Lancia

In short, Fiat will need to continue to follow up with new, innovative models that will keep the brand relevant in the hearts, minds and wallets of the competitive American marketplace, or it is likely destined to become “just another brand” within the vast FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) brand portfolio.


All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-Cleaning ritual

For many that have migrated to the typified single-detached home suburbia, a trip to the laundromat is a long forgotten chore, replaced with the convenience of in-home washing appliances. However, the laundromat remains a fixture for large segments of the population that reside within the urban core, significant portions of the post-secondary level students, as well as those residing in large-scale housing blocks.

Referred colloquially under several aliases, coin laundry/wash, coin-operated/coin-op laundry, laundromats are self-serve laundry facilities where one washes and dries their clothes and assorted linens.

Laundromats - 24-7 US-LA-Kenner Laundry 3814 Williams Blvd

24-7 Coin Laundry, Williams Boulevard, Kenner, Louisiana (source: maps.google.com)

As the laundromat is not a place at which most customers want to spend an inordinate or excessive amount of their day, efficiency, availability and location convenience have long been important parts of the business.

2-Dictated design

Laundromats are typically located in commercial retail spaces that are conducive to the operation, slotting in amongst other retail enterprises with little more than a box-sign above the doors. Typical stores can range between 1,000sq ft to 5,000sq ft, with average store size settling in at around 2,260sq ft (source: coinlaundry.org). As always, the old real estate tenet of location, location, location rings true for the industry.

The best spaces are those that are located at street/sidewalk level or the first floor, thus limiting the distance customers have to lug their clothes hampers/baskets and cleaning supplies in and out. Furthermore, locations that provide ample parking within close proximity, or that provide relatively easy access to public transportation, are also quite common.

DSC102364 Laundromats - Buanderie CA-QC-Montreal Avenue des Pins and Rue Laval
Buanderie/Laundromat, Avenue des Pins and Rue Laval, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Striving to accommodate various customer schedules, many laundromats stress location and convenience, operating extended business hours, with some having operations 24hours a day. The major caveat to extended hours is the fact that most laundromats are unstaffed operations. Although many laundromats have security cameras, the lack of/limited staff oversight can result in some apprehension and personal safety/security concerns for numerous potential customers.

As such, visibility, from both inside and outside the establishment is primordial.

Thus, requisite large window storefronts, along with clear sightlines deep into the space, allow customers to quickly evaluate the situation at a glance, prior to proceeding with their task. In addition to affording customers the ability to rapidly spot open machines, high visibility and transparency equates to a greater sense of safety.

DSC12347 Laundromats - Spins Laundrymart CA-ON-Ottawa McArthur Road and Lafontaine

Spins Laundrymart, McArthur Road and Lafontaine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Commonly exhibiting a racetrack-style interior design/layout, with single height top-load/front-load washing machines in the center of the space and higher double-stacked banks of dryers ringing the outer walls, the openness of the space is accentuated.

Equipment laid in rows, lined up back-to-back, results in main aisles and secondary aisles intersecting at right angles, thus reproducing a Cartesian grid system. Generous aisles that can accommodate the traffic flow of customers and carts easily can also augment the perception of openness.

Laundromats - Sea Coin Laundry US-WA-Kent  24437 Russell Rd

Sea Coin Laundry, Russell Road, Kent, Washington (source: maps.google.com)

Folding tables/counters located on the opposite side of washers/dryers moves customers away from the main aisles and frees up the equipment as well as the circulation spaces.

Formal seating areas, set up with tables, and magazine/newspaper racks, allow customers to retreat to a slightly less busy section of the laundromat, in order to wait on their wash/dry. Other amenities such as soda/snack/coffee vending machines, coin machine to change paper bills into quarters, dispensers for laundry soap/fabric softener, may also be located in such spaces. Somewhat more informal spaces, such as window ledges with chairs/stools may also be provided.

Many laundromats also provide cctv televisions, located at various spots within the space, to reduce the perceived wait-times and keep customers entertained and informed.

In sum, laundromat design is largely dictated by the need for an efficient workflow and unobstructed visibility.

3-Branding amongst independents

Lacking a dominant player, the self-serve coin-operated laundry industry is mostly composed of multiple small independent operators. Estimates suggest there are in excess of 35,000 laundries in the United States, with the business sector present and accounted for in numerous communities, large and small (source: coinlaundry.org). Fragmented, and without a singular rigid format, some regional operators, such as Central New York based Colonial Laundromats, have carved out a niche by branding their stores through a distinct and recognizable architectural identity.

DSC09552 Laundromats - Colonial US-NY-Clay Oswego Road near Route 31

Colonial Laundromat, Oswego Road near Route 31, Clay, New York

Applying in large part the ideal operational design layout consisting of a rectangular building footprint, long and narrow, with rows of dryers/washers laid out in a racetrack design, the exterior trade dress extends beyond simply blending into the landscape with the adjacent retail stores. In fact, in some cases, adjacent retail stores adopt the Colonial Laundromat building form factors.

DSC07120 Laundromats - Colonial US-NY-Syracuse Wolf Street

Colonial Laundromat, Wolf Street, Syracuse, New York

Many Colonial Laundromats locations are stand-alone, purpose-built locations, suited particularly to the business needs. Featuring large parking areas with limited travel distance, the façade offers expansive glass areas.

DSC09374 Laundromats - Colonial US-NY-Mattydale Route 11 near Matty Avenue

Colonial Laundromat, Route 11 near Matty Avenue, Mattydale, New York

The brick cladding adds a sense of mass to the small-scale one-storey building, helping to anchor the ends to the ground plane.

The overall design direction is skewed heavily towards Colonial Revival, which is itself an amalgam of Georgian, Federal and Dutch Colonial styles.

The simple geometric building forms, clad in brick, with white-painted wood trim and columns echo principles of both Georgian and Federal Colonial styles. White trimmed windows and casements add a sense of heritage charm. Punctual bay window projections echo a residential character. The steeply raked roof, pronounced gables, front-facing gable and the roof-mounted cupola, serve to further accentuate the residential perception.

DSC09467 Laundromats - Colonial US-NY-Syracuse Route 11 near Watson Road

Colonial Laundromat, Route 11 near Watson Road, Syracuse, New York

Implicit overtones of simplicity and wholesomeness are evident in the overall presentation that evokes several classical colonial design traits, injecting a feel-good blend of farm-house/country charm.

4-Emerging trends

However, other more daring operators are challenging the norms and recasting the mundane chore of domesticity with new design and innovations, rather than offering a serving of old-world charms.

Laundromats - BrainWash US-CA-San Francisco 1122 Folsom Street 2

BrainWash, Folsom Street, San Francisco, California (source: maps.google.com)


Laundromats - Laundromat Cafe Copenhagen-Denmark-15 Elmegade

Laundromat Café, 15 Elmegade, Copenhagen, Denmark (source: maps.google.com)

Focusing on delivering more than the regular or anticipated experience through unexpected services and/or design, “boutique laundromats” have emerged as a developing trend (source: complex.com). One area of particular interest is combining laundry with other non-traditional complementary services, such as a café with baristas or full-service bars/night clubs/lounges.

Laundromats - Wash and Coffee Munich Germany

Wash & Coffee, Munich, Germany (source: complexmag.ca)

Another route has been to add extra features such as kids play areas, video games, lounge areas, skylights, extra convenience such dry cleaning, drop-off/pick-up, wash-and-fold, or technology such as free wi-fi or reloadable swipe cards.

Laundromats - Suds Laundrette Melbourne Australia

Suds Laundrette, Melbourne, Australia (source: complexmag.ca)

Moreover, unexpected designs, ranging from colourful and cozy to sleek and modern, are also challenging the very notion of coin-op laundries.

Laundromats - Splash Spain-Barcalona 199 Carrer de la Diputació

Splash Laundry, 199 Carrer de la Diputació, Barcelona, Spain (source: maps.google.com)

An industry not recognized as being at the forefront of retail design innovation, technological advances and customer expectations will continue to drive operators to seek ways in which to meet new market demands.

5-Mature market

Although new designs and services are explored, the marketplace remains one of limited opportunities for growth, combined with significant up-front capital investments. Additionally, workflow patterns, circulation, and utilities (electrical, water, ventilation) requirements will continue to resist and provide push-back to many innovative design options that challenge the traditional yet efficient racetrack design.

As such, branding can become an essential differentiating factor between a thriving enterprise, and one that continues to struggle within a mature market.

As the industry changes, there are greater opportunities to transform the laundromat from some place dingy and drab that customers must endure into some place bright and attractive that they can enjoy, perhaps a little more.


Disclaimer: All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-Building a championship caliber team

Buffalo chicken wings have become a staple item at multiple sporting events, bars and restaurants across the United States and Canada. However, casual observation reveals that Buffalo, New York, exhibits an outsized reverence for the chicken wing. Although several theories have circulated over the years and continue to be debated as to the origins of the chicken wing, the city of Buffalo officially declared July 29, 1977 to be Chicken Wing Day (source: wikipedia.org). Buffalo’s Anchor Bar proclaims, and is generally believed, to have first served up the concoction.

BWW - Anchor Bar Buffalo New York

Anchor bar, Main Street, Buffalo, New York (source: wikipedia.org)

Buffalo Wild Wings eventual founding in 1982 can retrace its origins in part to the outsized veneration of the food item by Western New Yorkers. On a trip to Ohio, Buffalo resident James Disbrow and friend Scott Lowery struck out on their search for an authentic Buffalo-style chicken wing (source: wikipedia.org, ir.buffalowildwings.com). Unable to satisfy their craving, they opted to open up their own restaurant.

Buffalo Wild Wings & Weck® opened their first location near The Ohio State University in 1982, began franchising in 1991, and became a publicly traded company in 2003 (source: ir.buffalowildwings.com). Present in the United States, Canada and Mexico, a spate of openings in early 2014 bumped the number of locations to over 1,000 restaurants (source: franchising.com, businesswire.com). Over the years, the brand modified its original trade name to Buffalo Wild Wings Grill & Bar, and more recently to Buffalo Wild Wings, or B-Dubs (ir.buffalowildwings.com).

DSC09310 BWW - BWW Arsenal Street Watertown NY

Buffalo Wild Wins, 3/4 side view, Arsenal Street, Watertown, New York

The sports themed casual dining restaurant and bar chain has become a destination of choice for big-game sporting events, beer and wings.

2-Getting on base

The tagline “Wings. Beer. Sports.” succinctly states the brand position with clear focus. This particular focus has surely helped it achieve the ranks of the successful and fast growing restaurant concepts.

DSC08373 BWW - BWW Strip Mall Wonderland Road near Southdale London ON

Buffalo Wild Wings, 3/4 front view, Wonderland Road near Southdale, London, Ontario, Canada

During its 30-plus year existence, Buffalo Wild Wings has applied such sharp focus to areas of design and communications, seeking in part to define, protect and refine its exterior and interior built-environments. At first blush, many Buffalo Wild Wings locations seem to adhere to the prototypical formula. However, several instances reveal that the distinctive exterior brand marks have not been applied en masse.

BWW - BWW 2149 N High Street Columbus OH 5 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, 2149 N High Street, Columbus, Ohio (source: maps.google.com)

Reasons for this potential shortfall in optimal branding can be as varied as favouring speed to market by re-using existing buildings, location constraints, neighbourhood sensitivities, historical preservation, locale, and/or zoning. Additionally, Buffalo Wild Wings has a demonstrated history of welcoming different building types into the herd.

BWW - BWW Transformation Randolph and Monroe Detroit MI 2 https___maps.google

Odd Fellows building prior to conversion, Randolph and Monroe, Detroit, Michigan (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW Randolph and Monroe Detroit MI

Buffalo Wild Wings after conversion, Randolph and Monroe, Detroit, Michigan (source: mlive.com)

BWW - BWW Transformation 1620 Niagara Falls Blvd Tonawanda NY 10 https___maps.google

Montana’s prior to conversion, Niagara Falls Blvd, Tonawanda, New York (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW Transformation 1620 Niagara Falls Blvd Tonawanda NY 12 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings during conversion, Niagara Falls Blvd, Tonawanda, New York (source: maps.google.com)

Stand alone, pad locations, power center, strip mall and enclosed mall stores all co-exist within the restaurant chain’s portfolio. Seemingly favouring no specific geometry, shape, size, floor area or even number of floor levels, the brand relies almost entirely on its varied recognizable brand elements such as the winged buffalo logo, awnings or the white, black and yellow brand colours in several instances.

BWW - BWW 404 Englar Rd Westminster MD 3 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, side view, Englar Road ,Westminster, Maryland (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW 11363 Montgomery Rd Cincinnati OH 2 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, multi-storey location, 3/4 view, Montgomery Road, Cincinnati, Ohio (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW 2548 East Workman Avenue West Covine CA 2 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, East Workman Avenue, West Covine, California (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW Strip Mall 5143 Wellington Rd Gainesville VA 1 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, strip mall location, Wellington Road, Gainesville, Virginia (source: maps.google.com)

One could even make an argument that the brand has built up such a strong top of mind presence, through its coordinated and focused approach, that the use of a singular brand item can at times be just enough to identify the Buffalo Wild Wings brand.

BWW - BWW Strip Mall 3335 Worthington Blvd Ijamsville MD 1 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, strip mall location, Worthington Boulevard, Ijamsville, Maryland (source: maps.google.com)

BWW - BWW 1778 Ala Moana Blvd Honolulu HI 1 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, Ala Moana Boulevard, Honolulu, Hawaii (source: maps.google.com)

Locations such as these, sporting a sampling of the Buffalo Wild Wings markings, have been adeptly integrated,  transformed and/or reconfigured to better reflect the brand’s energy and message. Calculated use of limited insignia helps to increase presence and visibility within a crowded marketplace while affording the brand access to trade areas or neighbourhoods that might not be as appropriate or receptive to the fully-loaded Buffalo Wild Wings design package.

3-Bases loaded

Although the restaurants utilize unifying brand elements, the brand ambassadors are surely the stand-alone building format. Complemented by the full package of exterior treatments, integrated from the initial design phase, the stand-alone new-build form and design is unique and unmistakably B-Dubs.

DSC08748 BWW - BWW Construction Mapleview Drive near Highway 400 Barrie ON

Buffalo Wild Wings during construction, Mapleview Drive near Highway 400, Barrie, Ontario, Canada

Strategically featuring the brand signature colours of yellow, black and white, the typical one-storey building is generally clad with resilient, warm, natural base materials such as brick and stone.

DSC09311 BWW - BWW Arsenal Street Watertown NY

Buffalo Wild Wings, 3/4 front view, Arsenal Street, Watertown, New York

The main entrance is quickly identifiable, framed by a high tower element bisecting the low-rise principal building in two halves of unequal size. The tower is finished in the brand’s bold yellow colour, with one of the two primary columns typically wrapped in a tapestry of alternating white and black squares extending from the ground plane to the parapet. The prominent parapets effectively cap the building by providing a clear visual termination point in the plane.

BWW - BWW 206 Old Eastwood Road Wilmington NC 2 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, 3/4 side view, Old Eastwood Road, Wilmington, North Carolina (source: maps.google)

A projecting intermediate roof reduces the effective height to bring it to a more human scale, while providing some shape and cover for guests upon arrival. At the main roof, equipment screens echo the white and black squares, thus integrating necessary yet visually less interesting mechanical features into the design envelope.

BWW - BWW 3209 Stadium Drive Kalamazoo MI 3 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, Stadium Drive, Kalamazoo, Michigan (source: maps.google)

Punched window openings reduce the bulk of the building and provide some rhythm to the exterior façade. Each large primary window is dressed up with a black coloured awning, which continues the alternating squares design across the base of the awning, although in the yellow and black colour palette.

BWW - BWW 2750 Mall Dr #600 Las Cruces NM 4 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, 3/4 front view, Mall Drive, Las Cruces, New Mexico (source: maps.google)

The covered patio repeats the norm established by the window awnings with a larger sized awning covering the adjacent space, therefore tying the outdoor space visually with the rest of the building.

DSC08682 BWW - BWW Yonge St near Green Lane East Gwillimbury ON

Buffalo Wild Wings, Yonge Street near Green Lane, East Gwillimbury, Ontario, Canada

Although prescriptive, the prototype design blends into several surroundings by utilizing common commercial construction materials, having an aesthetic that resonates well with its neighbours and by being appropriately scaled.

BWW - BWW 4345 Merle Hay Road Des Moines IA 5 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, 3/4 side view, Merle Hay Road, Des Moines, Iowa (source: maps.google.com)

The typical interior adopts an open layout with different dining options, from sit-down to bar-side. In line with its sports bar intentions, the interior is plastered with televisions for optimal sports viewing, encouraging social interactions between patrons. Sports-themed memorabilia and brand insignia adorn the walls, and merchandising displays afford guests an opportunity to purchase gear or sauces.

Playing up ambiance and energy, B-Dubs has strived to be the go-to location for families and sports-fans to gather, enjoy a game together on one of their multiple TVs while enjoying some suds and gnoshing on wings. Destined to forever remain a substitute to actually being at the game, Buffalo Wild Wings sought to improve upon their own offering.

4-Changing the playbook

Armed with the idea of bringing the game-time experience ever-closer to the fans, B-Dubs reworked several parts of their brand communication, logo, typeface, graphics, restaurant layout and exterior design/architectural identity.

In the latter half of 2012, B-Dubs unveiled a refreshed take on their formula. Working with FITCH, a global design consultancy, all brand aspects, including logo, restaurant design, audio-visual capabilities and operations were reviewed (source: buffalowildwings.com). Attempting to recreate the sensory overload and cacophony of activity of a stadium, the new design seeks to provide an immersive experience.

Although the brand has broadened its appeal beyond sports-fans over time, the B-Dubs triumphant formula continues to revolve around three key items: wings, beer and sports. The new “Stadia” concept unveiled in 2012 would build upon these brand pillars (source: buffalowildwings.com, fitch.com, nrn.com).

Of first order, the signature sauces and seasoning have been brought to the forefront, being prominently displayed upon entry. A “redesigned entry, complete with merchandise, local sports memorabilia and benches that look like lockers greet guests” projects a tunnel experience akin to entering a sports stadium (source: yucatantimes.com, bizwire.com, akronlegalnews.com).

BWW - BWW Interior Hostess station

Buffalo Wild Wings, “Stadia concept”, interior view, hostess station (source: underconsideration.com)

BWW - BWW Stadia concept Hostess station

Buffalo Wild Wings, “Stadia” concept, interior view, hostess station (source: fitch.com)

Once beyond the arrival area into the main area, the space opens up dramatically with seating zones, colourful graphics, and large volumes. The zoned spaces allow families and fans to freely choose between more intimate dining spaces ringing the edges, to be closer to the action at the center of the restaurant or the patio space for a different experience.

Noticeably, the brand has brought the beer out front behind the bar into full view. Holding down the No. 1 account spot for more than 50 different beer brands, beer sales are a central element of the B-Dubs business (source: cnbc.com). As such, the wide selection of beers are on display with kegs integrated into the wall at the edge of the bar area.

BWW - BWW Stadia concept Beer kegs

Buffalo Wild Wings, “Stadia” concept, interior view, bar with beer kegs recessed into wall (source: fitch.com)

Additionally, with sports rounding out the three brand pillars, enhancements designed to improve the game-time experience are at the heart of the redesign. Much like before, the game literally remains front, center and at multiple viewing angles, spread out strategically throughout the interior, with a Jumbotron-type giant screen hung above the bar, à la central score board at many sports arenas (source: akronlegalnews.com). Highlighting the social aspect of sports by creating an engaging and interactive gathering place for sports-fans, the design attempts to capture the communal nature and replicate energy of a sports stadium. Several seating options can accommodate groups of various sizes, and the U-shaped bar configuration affords interactions between patrons.

BWW - BWW Stadia concept bar area

Buffalo Wild Wings, “Stadia” concept, interior view, U-shaped bar area (source: fitch.com)

Finally, along with the changes to the interior spaces, the familiar look previously established by B-Dubs has been dramatically reworked. The most striking exterior design change is possibly industrial slant that the brand has opted to trace.

BWW - BWW Stadia concept exterior

Buffalo Wild Wings “Stadia” concept, exterior view, front facade (source: yucatantimes.com)

Cubist, boxy, squat, a jumble of stacked blocks, the “Stadia” concept embodies many of the faddish qualities of container architecture.

BWW - Starbucks store constructed of shipping containers Tukwila WA

Starbucks drive-thru store constructed of shipping containers, Tukwila, Washington (source: bdcnetwork.com)

Corrugated steel and aluminum volumes are juxtaposed with warmer, earthy, durable materials such as brick and stone. Intended to be more dynamic and inviting, the techno-industrial, mechanical, barren aesthetic seems to have more sterile feel, likely to age less gracefully than the previous design.

DSC06263 BWW - Mazda Dealership Drivers Village Cicero NY

Mazda Dealership featuring techno-industrial aesthetic, East Circle Drive, Cicero, New York

Larger exterior windows, along with the addition of clerestory windows permits daylight to filter into the center of the restaurant through the afternoon hours providing a more inviting space. Additionally, the central high volume required by the new windows reinforces the airy dining/bar space, opening up the space to feel even larger and more grandiose. High ceilings, exposed structure and pendant lights further enhance the sensation of volume.


The boundary between inside and outside space is blurred by the covered patio space, with a complement of overhead door that expand the seating area and the effective restaurant footprint.

BWW - BWW Strip mall 85 Western Avenue Portland ME 3 https___maps.google

Buffalo Wild Wings, strip mall location, Western Avenue, Portland, Maine (source: maps.google.com)

Looking like the prototype might have been parachuted in to the site, it does not assimilate into the surroundings with much ease. Busy, less cohesive, and somewhat ephemeral, the “Stadia” design could present a potential source of visual conflict with adjacent retail storefronts, especially in strip mall settings, whereas the previous design managed to co-exist with fewer constraints.

5-Converting in the red zone

Challenging itself and its design team to amplify the Buffalo Wild Wings experience and continue to deliver on the brand’s irreverent, fast-paced, fun, casual dining and entertainment premise, the brand intends to roll out its new “Stadia” concept, along with new logo and insignia, throughout its network of restaurants.

DSC12316 BWW - BWW Gift Card New Logo 2013

Buffalo Wild Wings gift card with new logo and typeface

Designed to be cost-effective, scalable, and adaptable for retrofits, most 2013 new-build and all remodels were to adopt the “Stadia” prototype design (source: fitch.com, nrn.com, buffalowildwings.com).

Pursuing its global ambitions, with plans to open restaurants in Mexico, Canada, the Philippines and Middle East during 2014, the new “Stadia” concept will become ever more commonplace (source: franchising.com).

DSC03962 BWW - Scotiabank Place

Real stadium experience, NHL hockey, Scotiabank Place, Kanata, Ontario, Canada

Although noting can replace the experience of actually being at the game, much remains to be seen if “Stadia” will be able to convert on B-Dubs game plan to deliver an “Amped up!” guest experience, continue to broaden the base beyond the core, and score with fans.


All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-In a world …

When Blockbuster LLC announced that it would be shuttering operations in the later half of 2013, it came as little surprise to many that had been following the downtrend of the video rental business and slow public demise of the former category titan.

Launched in 1985 in Dallas, Texas, David and Sandy Cook’s take on the video store concept was met with a warm reception. Blockbuster Video’s early success was due in part to its ability to customize stores to their corresponding neighbourhood, stocking films geared specifically to demographic profiles, as well as in demand popular new releases in addition to a vast library of titles (source: wikipedia.org). Additionally, Blockbuster did not rent X-rated films, which helped it leapfrog competitors at a time when the industry was transitioning from adult renters to a more family-friendly focus.

2-A story made for Hollywood

By 1985, the VCR (videocassette recorder) had risen above the confines of being an expensive gadget for the wealthy and had begun to establish itself as the standard entertainment device for average households. Furthermore, “Hollywood had called a truce in its epic legal battle against the tide of technology as it realized the lucrative new revenue stream the machines produced” (source: businessweek.com). In tandem with the adoption of the new technology, video retail specialty stores blossomed and diversified. The video rental industry had begun its ascent from peddlers of adult movies in questionable shops in disreputable neighbourhoods into a more legitimate and respectable venture.

The initial store, located at the intersections of Skillman and Northwest Highway in Dallas, would establish the framework for the coming video rental industry revolution. The first store, in a free-standing section of a strip shopping center fronting the busy intersection was brightly lit, exhibiting a high degree of transparency and visibility due to floor to ceiling windows (source: businessweek.com). A video buff, Sandy Cook designed the store’s interior with bold blue and yellow colours, the torn-ticket logo and the name, Blockbuster (source: businessweek.com). The site afforded great visibility and compelling demographics.

DSC12298 - Blockbuster Membership Card

Blockbuster Membership Card

When the store opened in October of 1985, the reaction to the wide selection of titles and brightly lit surroundings from customers was better than expected, and the Cooks realized they had a hit on their hands (source: businessweek.com).

The second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s were booming years for the company, growing from a single store in Texas, into several locations through franchising and licensing agreements. However, the limited barriers to entry into the video rental business combined with the increasing encroachment from supermarkets, convenience stores, and other retailers into Blockbuster’s core business meant that the growth curve needed to increase dramatically.

In a bid to achieve critical market mass quickly, the franchise and license strategy was cast aside. Under the guidance of Wayne Huizenga, Blockbuster began buying back as many franchise locations as were willing to sell and acquiring several competitors, incorporating these into the Blockbuster family (source: businessweek.com). During this hectic period, Blockbuster was reported to be opening a store a day.

3-Designed with Speed

The breakneck pace of expansion throughout the 1980s and 1990s was an unequivocal all-out assault on the video rental industry, and all Blockbuster competitors, large and small.

In early 1986, a new distribution center that could provide the entire fulfillment requirements, from movies to janitorial supplies, for three (3) new stores within 24 hours, had come on-line (source: businessweek.com). The groundwork was set for rapid expansion, and Blockbusters were opening up seemingly everywhere.

Most stores exhibited an inside-out design philosophy. The cashier island would be located near the entrance/exit, splitting the circulation flow between in and out, complete with the customary greetings upon entry and exit. The perimeter walls would be lined with shelving and racks, a ring of movies thus encircling the store, with the internal portions divides into row upon row with shorter shelving reminiscent of library stacks. A queuing space, linear or amorphous, would exist near the front of the returns/register area and define the check-out process. The overall design was skewed towards transactional efficiency, expediting the “browse, select, check-out” process. Layout, finishes and case goods all reinforced the speed mantra.

Providing no desirable place for cinephiles to converge, meet and discuss, and share recommendations, the Blockbuster store design removed emotion from the overall process. Lacking a sense of community or belonging to one location over another, the stores would become interchangeable, with preferred location being based on in-stock product availability, accessibility and parking. As much as the newer stores were efficient, to a certain extent, Blockbuster had managed to design the joy and wow factor of the original concept out of them.

Blockbuster 798 Us Route 302 Barre VT 1

Blockbuster, US Route 302, Barre, Vermont (source: maps.google.com)

Shopping plazas and strip malls, with their mix of revolving and interchangeable tenants, provided a perfect canvas with end caps, linear, or mall locations, each one as non-descript, sterile and anonymous as the other. Somewhat unsurprisingly, Blockbuster thrived in the car-friendly suburban/ex-urban milieu where strip malls and shopping plazas endowed with ample free parking areas abound.

DSC04336 - Blockbuster Retail Strip Arsenal Street Watertown NY

Commercial retail shopping powercenter, Arsenal Street, Watertown, New York

DSC03951 - Blockbuster Retail Powercenter  Trainyards Industrial Road Ottawa ON

Commercial retail shopping powercenter, Trainyards, Industrial Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Brand specific exterior alterations tended to be minimal, exemplifying the quick turn around from vacant Commercial Retail Unit (CRU) into a fully operational Blockbuster. By design, few ornamentation or embellishments were required.

DSC05303 - Blockbuster 39 9th Street Cornwall ON

Blockbuster, 9th Street, Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

DSC12269 - Blockbuster FORMER Elmvale Acres Shopping Centre Ottawa ON

Blockbuster (FORMER), Elmvale Acres Shopping Centre, Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Even stand-alone stores had little to no form factors to speak of, nothing particularly unique, instead adopting the aesthetics of the adjacent buildings, development project, or retail agglomeration where the building existed.

DSC12180 - Blockbuster FORMER Central Shopping Plaza Northwest 7th Street Miami FL

Blockbuster (FORMER), Central Shopping Plaza, Northwest 7th Street, Miami, Florida

Functional and design worthy, window awnings, the most popular being the quarter round shape extrusion along the window head, populated many Blockbuster locations. Nonetheless, the presence and shape of the awnings never seemed to be a prescriptive architectural design feature that the brand held firmly.

Blockbuster 15 Webbs Place Dover NH 3

Blockbuster, Webbs Place, Dover, New Hampshire (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster 219 Waterman Dr South Portland ME 1

Blockbuster, Waterman Drive, South Portland, Maine (source: maps.google.com)

An expansive glass retail storefront, combined with a busy intersection, and a pool of potential customers to draw from made for ideal stores. High transparency storefronts combined with high visibility/high traffic locations were the best fits.

Blockbuster 1608 Memorial Dr Chicopee MA 3

Blockbuster, Memorial Drive, Chicopee, Massachusetts (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster 2601 SW 147th Avenue Miami FL 6

Blockbuster, SW 147th Avenue, Miami, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

Street facing orientation to maximize exposure, especially on major intersections, arterial main roads and state roads was given favour. Although not always facing the street, the stores did have a bias towards the front façade, investing the bulk of the exterior design capital on that particular elevation, even if it faced a typical suburban parking area.

Blockbuster 926 W Boylston St Worcester MA 3

Blockbuster, West Boylston Street, Worcester, Massachusetts (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster 3300 Aramingo Avenue Philadelphia PA 4

Blockbuster, Aramingo Avenue, Philadelphia Pennsylvania (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster’s multi-location strategy became a decisive competitive advantage, blanketing several markets with multiple stores within a short distance of each other in an attempt to dominate any given geographical region. Fitting seamlessly into many retail formats, other video store competitors could easily copy and emulate Blockbuster’s barren aesthetic lead, but none could keep pace with the brand’s new store deployment velocity. At the height of Blockbuster’s popularity, the company operated close to 10,000 stores.

DSC09689 - Blockbuster Ave des Pins and Rue St-Dominique Montreal QC

Blockbuster, Avenue des Pins and Rue St-Dominique, Montreal, Québec, Canada

DSC12097 - Blockbuster FORMER Ave des Pins and Rue St-Dominique Montreal QC

Blockbuster (FORMER), Avenue des Pins and Rue St-Dominique, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Building design, format, size, height, width, depth, form, articulation, few of the typical architectural features that can define a brand’s built environment held sway against speed’s siren song.

4-United by colour

Although there was no unifying architectural theme or design scheme, Blockbuster excelled in identifying their properties through the use of brand colours and signage, utilizing these elements to build a cohesive, consistent and dominant brand presence.

Blockbuster 270 S Robertson Road Beverly Hills CA 1

Blockbuster, South Robertson Road, Beverly Hills, California (source: maps.google.com)

The use of the yellow and blue was overly present on building exteriors, interiors and signage, creating instant and evocative recognition. The torn ticket logo in the identifiable yellow and blue adorned most stores.

Blockbuster 175 Broad Street Glens Falls NY 2

Blockbuster, Broad Street, Glens Falls, New York (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster 1115 S Federal Highway Fort Lauderdale FL 4

Blockbuster, South Federal Highway, Fort Lauderdale, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

Blockbuster 20595 Old Cutler Road Cutler Bay FL 5

Blockbuster, Old Cutler Road, Cutler Bay, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

Predominantly locating in buildings of neutral paint colours and tones, the blue and yellow brand colours would stand out against such pale backgrounds. A discreet nod to its South Florida (Fort Lauderdale) heritage, where the landscape is populated by pale coloured (beige, cream, white) and pastel (blue, pink, yellow) coloured buildings can be inferred.

DSC07432 - Blockbuster Retail Strip A1A Lauderdale-by-the-sea FL

Commercial retail street, North Ocean Boulevard, Lauderdale-by-the-sea, Florida

Blockbuster 10 East Palmetto Park Boca Raton FL 1

Blockbuster, East Palmetto Park, Boca Raton, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

Nonetheless, Blockbusters would also locate in buildings with darker colours, and of varied materials and exterior finishes.

DSC08792 - Blockbuster Montreal Road and St-Laurent Blvd Ottawa ON

Blockbuster, Montreal Road and St-Laurent Boulevard, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

DSC12289 - Blockbuster FORMER NOW Desjardins Montreal Road and St-Laurent Blvd Ottawa ON

Blockbuster (FORMER), Montreal Road and St-Laurent Boulevard, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Blockbuster 1900 North Federal Highway Hollywood FL 5

Blockbuster, North Federal Highway, Hollywood, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

There was a noticeable willingness and flexibility to modify and omit brand elements to achieve harmony within particularly distinct shopping areas and neighbourhoods, such as Miami’s art-deco influenced South Beach district.

Blockbuster 1501 Alton Rd Miami Beach FL 8

Blockbuster, Alton Road, Miami Beach, Florida (source: maps.google.com)

Therefore, many of the distinctive brand elements, signage and colours seemed to be after-thoughts, appliqués that could be grafted onto any building that would fit the formula of high visibility, high traffic and ideal demographic mix. And in those cases were the brand colours and logo would offend the local ordinances or neighbourhood sensibilities, they could just as easily be jettisoned from the building exterior as the Blockbuster format designed the stores from the inside-out.

5-The final act

The growing proliferation and progressive adoption of the internet throughout the 1990s and 2000s, along with the rise of new competitors that would embrace the emerging technology would begin to chip away at Blockbusters business model.

Although Blockbuster had come to dominate the rental category, the internet’s capability to deliver media content continued to gain strength and acceptance with consumers. Counter intuitively, CEO James W. Keyes would propose a business strategy that would return the emphasis on the in-store, retail-focused model and de-emphasize unprofitable online services in 2007 (source: wikipedia.org). However, by 2010, the rapidly changing landscape, which now included competition from internet streaming, lower-cost alternatives such as Netflix and Redbox and video on-demand services had caught up with the rental industry.

DSC12212 - Blockbuster RedBox Kiosk Winn Dixie N Ocean Blvd Lauderdale-by-the-sea FL

RedBox Kiosk, Winn Dixie, N Ocean Blvd, Lauderdale-by-the-sea, Florida

In early 2010, Movie Gallery/Hollywood Video filed for bankruptcy. Subsequently, on September 23 2010, Blockbuster filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection due to mounting losses, debt and competition (source: wikipedia.org). Massive store closings followed.

DSC11269 - Blockbuster Hollywood Video Main Street Binghamton NY

Hollywood Video, Main Street, Binghamton New York

Acquiring company Dish Network shuttered unprofitable stores and streamlined the remaining operations with a plan to leverage the Blockbuster name into the online space. On October 4, 2012, Dish Network announced that it was scrapping plans to make Blockbuster into a Netflix competitor (source: wikipedia.org). Store closings persisted as multiple Blockbuster locations continued to underperform.

Blockbuster FORMER Liverpool Route 57 near John Glenn Blvd Liverpool NY 5

Blockbuster (FORMER), Route 57, Liverpool, New York (source: maps.google.com)

Devoid of any communal sense that existed in the formative years, lacking a comprehensive architectural identity, hampered by continued bouts of management demonstrating smugness and arrogance, along with persistent denial and general lack of acknowledgment of the transformative digital revolution happening in the video industry, Blockbuster was eventually shuttered by the end of 2013.

Disclaimer: All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.

1-Transforming A department into THE department

In the current retailing environment, whereby businesses cater to mass-markets and/or specialize in segments and sub-segments of the retail market, shopping for many consumer goods is plentiful. Fashion, apparel, intimates, consumers can choose from businesses that tailor their offerings to best respond to their particular needs and wants.

However, just a few decades removed, retailing had not spread across the multitude of categories available today. In the heydays of the enclosed malls, department stores tended to be  all things to all people. These anchor tenants would draw all types of consumers with a varied offering set up into distinct departments such as, household goods, women’s wear, shoes, and intimates.

DSC11727 - VS Macys 6th Avenue and West 34th Street NYC NY

Macy’s Department store, 6th Avenue and West 34th Street, New York City, New York

DSC11647 - VS JC Penney Manhattan Mall NYC

JC Penney, Manhattan Mall, 6th Avenue and West 34th Street, New York City, New York

Feeling embarrassed trying to purchase lingerie for his wife in the department store retail environment, Roy Raymond undertook to change it (source: wikipedia.org). The department stores’ cold hollow displays, box upon box of undergarments stacked neatly in slotted display cases would be forever altered. Once relegated to being a department within the department store, lingerie and under garment shopping would move to the forefront.

2-Embracing Victorian charm

When Victoria’s Secret launched in 1977, social mores and some old ideas surrounding intimate apparel had begun to wane. Aimed directly at softening and altering the cringe inducing factors that accompanied the intimate apparel shopping experience, especially for male shoppers, the first store opened at the Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, California (source: wikipedia.org).

Fashioned to evoke Victorian-esque boudoirs, the stores were designed to create an inviting environment, replete with ornate Victorian detailing, warm neutral colours, and rich wood-paneled walls. Victorian era design ideals assign a strong importance to order and ornamentation, whereby public and private spaces were to be kept separate and bare quarters were in violation of the unspoken rules of good taste.

The traditional department stores’ slotted display cases were replaced with individual styles paired together, framed and mounted for easy browsing (source: wikipedia.org). Helpful staff assisted in estimating appropriate sizes and pulled the merchandise from inventory in the back rooms (source: wikipedia.org). As such, both women and men, could feel more at ease in this particular retail environment.


Victoria’s Secret, Briarwood Mall, Ann Arbor, Michigan (source: wikipedia.org)

After several more store openings, as well as the introduction of a mail-order catalog, shopping for intimates had changed radically (source: wikipedia.org).

3-Moving to a grander stage

In 1982, Mr. Raymond would sell his interests to the founder of the Limited Brands, Linda Wexner (source: wikipedia.org). The size and scope of the Victoria’s Secret brand would changed again, and dramatically at that.

Ten years into the Limited Brands’ tenure, Victoria’s Secret was a nationally recognized brand. Sticking to the strategy that made it successful early on, Victoria’s Secret grew rapidly with mall locations across the US throughout the 1980s (source: wikipedia.org).

DSC06276 - VS Victoria Secret Salmon Run Mall Watertown NY

Victoria’s Secret, Salmon Run Mall, Watertown, New York

Along with physical stores, the breadth of products that could be sold was exponential due to the availability of its mail-order catalog business (source: wikipedia.org). Exceeding $1B in sales, Victoria’s Secret had established itself as the largest American lingerie retailer by the early 1990s (source: wikipedia.org).

DSC09641 - VS Victoria Secret Champlain Centre Plattsburg NY

Victoria’s Secret, Champlain Centre, Plattsburg, New York

Somewhere along the expansion path, the stores started to take on a more daring, provocative look, unrecognizable to the founding vision.

DSC11653 - VS Victoria Secret Manhattan Mall NYC NY

Victoria’s Secret, Manhattan Mall, New York City, New York

The intricate dainty details, the quaint pinks and white and the playful suggestive innuendos were disappearing. Streamlined surfaces, a generous splattering of black, hot pink neon and peep show framed window displays that had much commonality with Amsterdam’s Red Light district began to creep into the suburban malls.

DSC06231 - VS Victoria Secret Carousel Mall Syracuse NY

Victoria’s Secret, Carousel Mall, Syracuse, New York

Implicit or suggestive references were now undeniably explicit, the storefronts communicated the brand’s category dominance. This was no whisper, it was an untamed guttural growl.


Victoria’s Secret, Las Vegas, Nevada (source: wikipedia.org)

The staid conservative ethos gave way to a more radical approach. The stores began trending in a new direction and reflected a more laissez-faire, va-va-voom attitude where reserved now clashed with risqué.

4-Reserved to Risqué to Refined

In December of 2008, Victoria’s Secret unveiled a new flagship store in Manhattan that recalled the founding principles and increased the feminine cues in a less provocative manner.

Stately, bright, bold and luxurious, the Lexington Avenue store was a sort of return-to-roots for Victoria’s Secret, and an embodiment of the essence of the brand in built form.

Victoria Secret 722 Lexington Avenue and East 58th Street NYC NY 2 https___maps.google

Victoria’s Secret, 722 Lexington Avenue (and East 58th Street), New York City, New York (source: wikipedia.org)

Victoria Secret 722 Lexington Avenue and East 58th Street NYC NY 1 https___maps.google

Victoria’s Secret, 722 Lexington Avenue (and East 58th Street), New York City, New York (source: wikipedia.org)

The facades reflect a modern design approach with clean lines, basic shapes, sleek machined edges, hidden fasteners and a lack of ornamentation. Utilizing reflective laminated glass panels, the exterior exudes a slick polished hi-tech look, almost casting a soft glow, underscored by pink lit portals. The varying panel sizes create a rhythm and a sense of motion in the building facade which is accentuated in the panels mirroring activities beyond. Street facing window display cases of varying height and width punctuate the facade, adding an element of surprise. Stainless steel framing around the window openings, as well as the main entrance component, provide a clean orderly transition piece at the openings.

Victoria Secret Lexington Avenue

Victoria’s Secret, 722 Lexington Avenue (and East 58th Street), New York City, New York (source: fashionwindows.net)

Inspired by hospitality and residential design themes, the interior exudes opulence, accentuated by the iconic black and white Victoria’s Secret colour palette. White-washed herringbone flooring and mother of pearl tiling, quilted walls further reinforce the sumptuous ambiance.

(source: dailymotion.com)

Décor items such as, black and white photographs, early 20th century French Art Deco influenced pieces, grand crystal chandeliers and sheer drapery hint to the brand’s Victorian inspired design roots and serve to further the luxurious immersive experience.

Upscale and very feminine, the new store substituted the older schematic of pinks and red with a black and white theme which would serve as a test-lab for the brand’s future design direction.

5-Manhattan Project lessons

In August of 2010, Edmonton’s West Edmonton Mall became home to Victoria’s Secret first store outside of the United States. Toronto followed in September 2010, and Calgary in May 2011 rounded out the list of Canadian locations.

Lessons and design cues from the flagship Manhattan store are evident. The more serene whites and pinks have returned, the use of silver and toned down neon is apparent, the use of black on the exterior facade has been balanced and used more sparingly, being featured as accent and contrast.

Victoria Secret Yorkdale Mall Toronto
Victoria’s Secret, Yorkdale Mall, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (source: torontoisfashion.com)


Although not dainty and demure, the architectural expression is less sterile. Ornamentation and detail has returned to the displays.

Retail design alchemy has seen equal parts classy imbued with equal parts sassy for a more refined, upscale, yet feminine look.

The architectural expressions that the stores have adopted over the years have at times served to blur the lines between sensual and sexual, the more recent iteration, with a dose of drama and a splash of sophistication seems to provide a balanced approach to satiate both extremes.

Victoria Secret 335 Powell Street San Francisco CA 1 https___maps.google

Victoria’s Secret, 335 Powell Street, San Francisco, California (source: maps.google.com)

Victoria Secret 3000 Hennepin Avenue South Minneapolis MN 3 https___maps.google

Victoria’s Secret, 3000 Hennepin Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota (source: maps.google.com)

DSC11724 - VS Victoria Secret 6th Avenue and West 34th Street NYC NY

Victoria’s Secret, 6th Avenue and West 34th Street, New York City, New York

Victoria Secret 923 W North Avenue Chicago IL 3 https___maps.google

Victoria’s Secret, 923 W North Avenue, Chicago, Illinois (source: maps.google.com)

Instituting a softer, more feminine, balanced design aesthetic should help to strengthen the Victoria’s Secret brand, already a dominant force in apparel and intimate wear, as it continues to expand into international locations and non-traditional retail sites.


All brands and trademarks are property of their respective owners.


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